2. Below is a summary of eight different types of surveying equipment and their uses: 1. If carefully done, it gives quite accurate results.

Traversing is that types of the survey in which several connected survey lines form the directions, and the framework and lengths of the survey line are measured with the help of an angle (or direction) measuring instrument and tape (or chain) respectively. Equipments Used for Chain Survey (cont.) Principle of Chain Surveying 3. Invar Engineers chain.

They run the tape over, and IF it is not laying flat, on the pavement, it breaks it. Adding or omitting a full chain or tape length assumed to be a parabola. List the five types of measurements that form the basis of traditional plane surveying. 1. Answer:Chain survey/surveying is a very old method of Surveying. This chain method is performed by a use of tape and it is expected to have errors due to incorrect tape measurements. When (h) is the difference in heights between the extremities of a chain length (l), then the correction for slope required is: A. h / l: B. h2 / l: C. h2 / 2l: D. h / el View Chain surveying consists of the arrangement of framework of triangles because a triangle is the only simple plane figure which can be plotted uniquely if : A. E . Types of Errors There are two types of errors, systematic and random. In chain surveying, the area that is to be measured is divided into a network of small triangles. Also, check lines etc. Tape. It is better not to cross the road frequently.

Errors In Chain Surveying. What is the difference between chainage and distance? The chain line should be over an approximately levelled ground In the case of chaining along the road, it is always better to run chains on one side of the road to avoid interruptions by vehicles. 1. the fore and back bearings of a line should be taken. 4. Compass Surveying, Basic difference between chain and compass surveying, Classification of Traverse- Closed Traverse, Open Traverse. It measures a series of straight lines on the ground with a chain or tape measure and all fixed points relative to the line of traverse either by right angles (offsets) or tie lines.

5 Testing and Adjustment of Chain. Handles are attached to both ends so that they can be handled easily. This presentation cover only chain surveying using chain and tape, and required instruments. etc., according to IS: 1270-1959.

Links and rings of steel wire form a chain that folds.

It is the exercise of physically measuring horizontal distances. The ground is level to some extent 3. Length is always shorter than the curved length. BY: Rakesh Kumar Verma A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , ( P . When the ends of the tape are at the same level, the sag correction is given by : Where, W = Weight of tape per unit length. in triangulation work. (surveying) A long measuring tape. quadrant. no angular measurements are made. 5. This is a very old and simple method. A chain (see Fig. l1 = length of the tape suspended between the supports. A broken tape, was the curse, of not paying attention, when cars were coming by. The tape is made of yarn and metal wire. Gunters chain or surveyors chain. 1. A boundary survey generally shows the property lines, easements, and other details as mandated by the state standard. The total length of chain is marked on the brass handle. 3.5 Revenue Chain. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor.These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish maps and boundaries for From determining property boundaries to preparing construction sites, surveyors rely on certain equipment to do their jobs properly. They are available in the width of 6, 9.5, 13, 16 mm. Direct Method (Stepping Method): The method consists in measuring the line in short horizontal lengths called steps. (surveying) A series of interconnected links of known length, used as a measuring device. etc., according to IS: 1270-1959. Compass Survey: Here horizontal angular measurements are made using the magnetic compass with the linear measurements made using the chain or tape. 1. Surveying is often required in any field of engineering, civil is no different. 3.2 Steel Band or Band Chain. Chain survey is the simplest method of surveying. magnetic compass with the linear measurements made using the chain or tape. 2. Here angular measurements are taken using a compass and linear measurements are determined using chain or tape. Some priorities for compass surveying are as following- by 0.005 m for each tape length. Chain surveying. Revenue chain- A long tape that is used in surveying for land surveying and other purposes. Compass Surveying In chain surveying the network of control points is established with the help of linear measurements. Chain surveying is generally done for a relatively smaller area to describe the boundaries of plots or land and to locate the existing features on it. Tallies are fixed at every five-meter length and brass rings are provided at every meter length except where tallies are attached. lab #3: survey of an area by chain survey (closed traverse) 8 lab #4: chaining across obstacles 10 lab #5: chain surveying (mapping by tape) 15 lab #6: study of level and levelling staff 18 lab #7: differential or fly levelling reduce levels by h.i method 22 lab # 8: differential or fly levelling reduce levels by rise and fall method 24 4. Chain Surveying: Chain surveying is the simplest method of surveying in which the linear measurements are directly taken in the field and the angular measurements are not taken. In chain surveying, the area that is to be measured is divided into a network of small triangles. 4. are not necessary for traverse as the traverse lines may be arranged near the details. Here, our main focus will be on chain surveying. Equal to 20.12 metres.

Maybe a 200' tape becomes a 67' piece and a 133' piece. (B) An increase in temperature causes a tape to increase in length and the measured distance is. Length is always shorter than the curved length. are done in the office. 1 Chapter 3 Distance measurement (Tape and offset surveying) The method of tape surveying is often referred to as chain surveying, deriving its name from the fact that the principal item of equipment traditionally used was a measuring chain.

2. 20m or 30m is the length. Made of steel It is worth noting that the difference between an arc distance of 18.5 km and the subtended chord lying in the earths surface is 7mm. Latitude of AB = the difference between the north co-ordinates of A and B = 840.78 500.25 = 325.53. Survey and Leveling Object of Survey Why should we study Survey? Answer: Even after so many advancements in surveying gadgets, instruments or equipments chain surveying one of the traditional and old way of surveying have still got a few advantages. Chain surveying requires chain, tape and ranging rods. Departure of AB = the difference between the east co-ordinates of A and B = 315.60 640.75 = 325.15 . However 30 m chains are also in use.

Are You Ready For the Latest Cyber Attack From Russia? 4 Technical Terms. Equipment for Chain Surveying. Compass surveying is a significant part of surveying that is commonly used to determine the location of an item using both angular and linear measurements. The necessary requirements for fieldwork are. These types of surveying tapes are used for the highest precision works, e.g., for the measurements of base lines, etc. W = the weight of the length of tape between supports in newtons (N). As nouns the difference between surveying and chain is that surveying is (sciences) art and science of accurately determining the position of points and the distances between them while chain is a series of interconnected rings or links usually made of metal. I . Instruments Used in Chain Surveying Some of the main instruments that are used in chain surveying are: 1. are done in the office. The area is open and 4. Principles of Compass Surveying. Chain/Tape Survey: This is the simple method of taking the linear measurement using a chain or tape with no angular measurements made. But in case of compass surveying each control point is established with the help of both linear and angular measurements and this process is termed as traversing. But for crucial and precise survey works in construction, accurate tape corrections are provided. carefully examining a plot of the collected survey points while in the office. Commonly used metric chains are of 20 m length. It is known as the compass traversing. Metallic Tape They are available in 2, 10, 30, and 50 meters. List 10 uses for surveying other than property and construction surveying. Then the sides of each triangle are measured directly using a chain or a tape. P = applied pull. Then the sides of each triangle are measured directly using a chain or a tape. 2. The length of the tape includes the metal ring.

Arrows. 2. (The term details means a natural or manmade features at or near the ground surface). This chain method is performed by a use of tape and it is expected to have errors due to incorrect tape measurements. Necklace noun. King Saud University College of Engineering Civil Engineering Department SE 211 CHAIN SURVEYING SUMMARY & ABSTRACT: Chain (Tape) surveying is the simplest form of detail surveying. Parts of Surveyor work Shape of Earth Primary Division of Survey Classification of survey Measurement and Instruments Chain And Tape Principle of Survey Ranging Out Survey Line Errors in Length due to incorrect Chain Apply These 6 Secret Techniques The survey points are connected as a series of lines. are directly Area Calculation with Chain Survey (Basic Civil Lab Experiment) The chain line should run near the boundary of the plot. Usually, a chain has a total length of 20 metres, including one handle at each end. See also chain; tape; taping. Equal to 4 rods. In this survey, only measurements are taken in the field, and the rest work, such as plotting calculation, etc. A compass is used to obtain angle measurements, while chain or tape is used to calculate linear measures. The chain surveying performed by tape is expected to have some errors because of incorrect tape measurements. Steel band or Band chain. Plane Table Surveying: In plane table surveying, the fieldwork and plotting are done using a graphical method. 3.4 Engineers Chain. Gunters chain to surveyor chain- When the chain was invented by Edmund Gunter in 1620, it measured 66 feet. There is a difference between mapping and surveying, one needs to know. In chain surveying, the area to be surveyed is divided into a number of triangles. Answer: Option A. downhill. In a chain survey, the long line between the survey area is taken as the baseline. This leaves you to survey with the longest piece. = the lengths of successive uniform slopes. Assignment #1 Explain the difference between geodetic and plane surveys. In metric terms, it is 20.1168 m long. The length of a cricket pitch. S2 3.1 tape and offset surveying. What are the different types of traversing?

When the ends of the tape are at the same level, the sag correction is given by : Where, W = Weight of tape per unit length. Chain. It is important for the surveyor to understand the difference between the two errors in order to Chain surveying is generally done for a relatively smaller area to describe the boundaries of plots or land and to locate the existing features on it. 6.Cross Staffs 6. This is the increase (positive growth) or decrease (negative growth) in the number of people. Metric Chain: Metric chains are made in lengths 20m and 30m. The length of a Gunter's surveying chain. Traverse survey differs from chain surveying in the arrangement of the survey lines is not limited to any particular geometric figure as in chain surveying, where a system of connected triangles forms the fundamental basis of the skeleton. Also, check lines etc. are not necessary for traverse as the traverse lines may be arranged near the details. Base Line. Temperature correction per tape length = C t = (T m - T o) l Here l = 30 m: T l1 = length of the tape suspended between the supports. Pegs. The value of P n may be Let l 1 l 2, etc. Here, our main focus will be on chain surveying.

iii. In any local chaining works, the errors are ignored.